F. Laoutid, L. Bonnaud, M. Alexandre, J. M. Lopez-cuesta, and P. Dubois, New prospects in flame retardant polymer materials: From fundamentals to nanocomposites, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep, vol.63, pp.100-125, 2009.

S. Liang, N. Neisius, and S. Gaan, Recent developments in flame retardant polymeric coatings, Prog. Org. Coat, vol.76, pp.1642-1665, 2013.

A. Dasari, Z. Z. Yu, G. P. Cai, and Y. W. Mai, Recent developments in the fire retardancy of polymeric materials, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.38, pp.1357-1387, 2013.

S. Lu and I. Hamerton, Recent developments in the chemistry of halogen-free flame retardant polymers, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.27, pp.1661-1712, 2002.

I. Van-der-veen and J. De-boer, Phosphorus flame retardants: Properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis, Chemosphere, vol.88, pp.1119-1153, 2012.

E. D. Weil, S. M. Atlas, and E. M. Pearce, Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants, Flame-Retardant Polymeric Materials, Lewin, M, vol.2, pp.103-131, 1978.

S. Levchik and E. Weil, Thermal decomposition, combustion and fire-retardancy of polyurethanes -A review of the recent literature, Polym. Int, vol.53, pp.1585-1610, 2004.

P. Kiliaris and C. D. Papaspyrides, Polymer/layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites: An overview of flame retardancy, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.35, pp.902-958, 2010.

P. S. Khobragade, D. P. Hansora, J. B. Naik, and A. Chatterjee, Flame retarding performance of elastomeric nanocomposites: A review, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.130, pp.194-244, 2016.

S. L. Bee, M. Abdullah, S. T. Bee, L. T. Sin, and A. R. Rahmat, Polymer nanocomposites based on silylatedmontmorillonite: A review, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.85, pp.57-82, 2018.

S. Matkó, A. Toldy, S. Keszei, P. Anna, G. Bertalan et al., Flame retardancy of biodegradable polymers and biocomposites, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.88, pp.138-145, 2005.

L. Costes, F. Laoutid, S. Brohez, and P. Dubois, Bio-based flame retardants: When nature meets fire protection, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep, vol.117, pp.1-25, 2017.

G. Marosi, B. Szolnoki, K. Bocz, and A. Toldy, Fire-retardant recyclable and biobased polymer composites, Novel Fire Retardant Polymers and Composite Materials

S. Farah, D. G. Anderson, and R. Langer, Physical and mechanical properties of PLA, and their functions in widespread applications-A comprehensive review, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev, vol.107, pp.367-392, 2016.

M. Jamshidian, E. A. Tehrany, M. Imran, M. Jacquot, and S. Desobry, Poly-Lactic Acid: Production, applications, nanocomposites, and release studies, Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf, vol.9, pp.552-571, 2010.

A. J. Lasprilla, G. A. Martinez, B. H. Lunelli, A. L. Jardini, and R. M. Filho, Poly-lactic acid synthesis for application in biomedical devices-A review, Biotechnol. Adv, vol.30, pp.321-328, 2012.

S. P. Dubey, V. K. Thakur, S. Krishnaswamy, H. A. Abhyankar, V. Marchante et al., Progress in environmental-friendly polymer nanocomposite material from PLA: Synthesis, processing and applications, vol.146, pp.655-663, 2017.

O. Gordobil, I. Egüés, R. Llano-ponte, and J. Labidi, Physicochemical properties of PLA lignin blends, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.108, pp.330-338, 2014.

A. Regazzi, M. F. Pucci, L. Dumazert, B. Gallard, S. Buonomo et al., Controlling the distribution of fire retardants in poly(lactic acid) by fused filament fabrication in order to improve its fire behaviour, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.163, pp.143-150, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02424968

B. Golaz, V. Michaud, and J. A. Månson, Adhesion of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer to galvanized steel, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes, vol.31, pp.805-815, 2011.

J. Wu, H. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Wu, and C. Zhou, Flame retardant polyurethane elastomer nanocomposite applied to coal mines as air-leak sealant, J. Appl. Polym. Sci, vol.129, pp.3390-3395, 2013.

K. M. Zia, M. Barikani, A. M. Khalid, and H. Honarkar, Surface characteristics of UV-irradiated chitin-based polyurethane elastomers, Carbohydr. Polym, vol.77, pp.621-627, 2009.

D. Chattopadhyay and K. Raju, Structural engineering of polyurethane coatings for high performance applications, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.32, pp.352-418, 2007.

H. W. Engels, H. G. Pirkl, R. Albers, R. W. Albach, J. Krause et al., Polyurethanes: Versatile materials and sustainable problem solvers for today's challenges, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, vol.52, pp.9422-9441, 2013.

S. L. Cooper and A. V. Tobolsky, Properties of linear elastomeric polyurethanes, J. Appl. Polym. Sci, vol.10, pp.1837-1844, 1966.

A. Frick and A. Rochman, Characterization of TPU-elastomers by thermal analysis

, Polym. Test, vol.23, pp.413-417, 2004.

K. M. Zia, H. N. Bhatti, and I. A. Bhatti, Methods for polyurethane and polyurethane composites, recycling and recovery: A review, React. Funct. Polym, vol.67, pp.675-692, 2007.

A. Pattanayak and S. C. Jana, Properties of bulk-polymerized thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites, Polymer, vol.34, pp.1068-1133, 2009.

A. Toldy, G. Harakály, B. Szolnoki, E. Zimonyi, and G. Marosi, Flame retardancy of thermoplastics polyurethanes, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.97, pp.2524-2530, 2012.

X. Chen, C. Ma, and C. Jiao, Enhancement of flame-retardant performance of thermoplastic polyurethane with the incorporation of aluminum hypophosphite and iron-graphene, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.129, pp.275-285, 2016.

C. Jiao, X. Zhao, W. Song, and X. Chen, Synergistic flame retardant and smoke suppression effects of ferrous powder with ammonium polyphosphate in thermoplastic polyurethane composites, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim, vol.120, pp.1173-1181, 2015.

U. A. Pinto, L. L. Visconte, J. Gallo, and R. C. Nunes, Flame retardancy in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers (TPU) with mica and aluminum trihydrate (ATH), Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.69, pp.257-260, 2000.

D. Chattopadhyay and D. C. Webster, Thermal stability and flame retardancy of polyurethanes, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.34, pp.1068-1133, 2009.

Y. Chen, L. Li, W. Wang, and L. Qian, Preparation and characterization of surface-modified ammonium polyphosphate and its effect on the flame retardancy of rigid polyurethane foam, J. Appl. Polym. Sci, vol.134, p.45369, 2017.

M. Y. Shen, W. J. Chen, C. F. Kuan, H. C. Kuan, J. M. Yang et al., Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites, Mater. Chem. Phys, vol.173, pp.205-212, 2016.

A. Cayla, F. Rault, S. Giraud, F. Salaün, V. Fierro et al., PLA with intumescent system containing lignin and ammonium polyphosphate for flame retardant textile, Polymers, vol.8, p.331, 2016.

B. Li, X. Zhang, and R. Su, An investigation of thermal degradation and charring of larch lignin in the condensed phase: The effects of boric acid, guanyl urea phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.75, pp.35-44, 2002.

S. Duquesne, R. Delobel, M. Le-bras, and G. Camino, A comparative study of the mechanism of action of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite in polyurethane, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.77, pp.333-344, 2002.

A. Riva, G. Camino, L. Fomperie, and P. Amigouet, Fire retardant mechanism in intumescent ethylene vinyl acetate compositions, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.82, pp.341-346, 2003.

J. W. Gu, G. C. Zhang, S. L. Dong, Q. Y. Zhang, and J. Kong, Study on preparation and fire retardant mechanism analysis of intumescent flame-retardant coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol, vol.21, pp.7825-7841, 2007.

C. X. Zhao, Y. Liu, D. Y. Wang, D. L. Wang, and Y. Z. Wang, Synergistic effect of ammonium polyphosphate and layered double hydroxide on flame retardant properties of poly(vinyl alcohol), Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.93, pp.1323-1331, 2008.

Z. Z. Xu, J. Q. Huang, M. J. Chen, Y. Tan, and Y. Z. Wang, Flame retardant mechanism of an efficient flameretardant polymeric synergist with ammonium polyphosphate for polypropylene, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.98, 2011.

X. Zheng, G. Wang, and W. Xu, Roles of organically-modified montmorillonite and phosphorus flame retardant during the combustion of rigid polyurethane foam, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.101, pp.32-39, 2014.

J. W. Gilman, C. L. Jackson, A. B. Morgan, R. Harris, E. Manias et al., Flammability properties of polymer layered-silicates nanocomposites, Chem. Mater, vol.12, pp.1866-1873, 2000.

S. Peeterbroeck, F. Laoutid, B. Swoboda, J. M. Lopez-cuesta, N. Moreau et al., How carbon nanotube crushing can improve flame retardant behavior in polymer nanocomposites ? Macromol. Rapids Commun, vol.28, pp.1392-1414, 2007.

Y. Pan, L. Liu, W. Cai, Y. Hu, S. Jiang et al., Effect of layer-by-layer self-assembled sepiolite-based nanocoating on flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties of flexible polyurethane foam, Appl. Clay Sci, vol.168, pp.230-236, 2019.

S. Pappalardo, P. Russo, D. Acierno, S. Rabe, and B. Schartel, The synergistic effect of organically modified sepiolite in intumescent flame retardant polypropylene, Eur. Polym. J, vol.76, pp.196-207, 2016.

E. Ruiz-hitzky, M. Darder, F. M. Fernandes, B. Wicklein, A. Alcantara et al., Fibrous clays based bionanocomposites, Prog. Polym. Sci, vol.38, pp.1392-1414, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01461418

A. Gomez-aviles, P. Aranda, and E. Ruiz-hitzky, Layered double hydroxide/sepiolite heterostructured materials, Appl. Clay Sci, vol.130, pp.83-92, 2016.

J. Hao, M. Lewin, C. A. Wilkie, and J. Wang, Additional evidence for the migration of clay upon heating of clay-polypropylene nanocomposites from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.91, pp.2482-2485, 2006.

F. Laoutid, O. Persenaire, L. Bonnaud, and P. Dubois, Flame retardant polypropylene throught the joint action of sepiolite and polyamide 6, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.98, 1972.

G. Tartaglione, D. Tabuani, G. Camino, and M. Moisio, PP and PBT composites filled with sepiolite: Morphology and thermal behaviour, Compos. Sci. Technol, vol.68, pp.451-460, 2008.

D. Kun and B. Pukánszky, Polymer/lignin blends: Interactions, properties, applications, Eur. Polym. J, vol.93, pp.618-641, 2017.

C. Delattre, A. Pons, J. Mathias, and J. Callois, Wood-lignin: Supply, extraction processes and use as bio-based material, Eur. Polym. J, vol.112, pp.228-240, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02608823

E. Windeisen and G. Wegener, Lignin as Building Unit for Polymers, Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference

M. Moeller, K. Matyjaszewski, and B. V. Eds;-elsevier, , vol.10, pp.255-265, 2012.

L. Ferry, G. Dorez, A. Taguet, B. Otazaghine, and J. M. Lopez-cuesta, Chemical modification of lignin by phosphorus molecules to improve the fire behavior of polybutylene succinate, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.113, pp.135-143, 2015.

L. Dumazert, D. Rasselet, B. Pang, B. Gallard, S. Kennouche et al., Thermal stability and fire reaction of poly(butylene succinate) nanocomposites using natural clays and FR additives, Polym. Adv. Technol, vol.29, pp.69-83, 2018.

S. Gómez-fernández, M. Günther, B. Schartel, M. A. Corcuera, and A. Eceiza, Impact of the combined use of layered double hydroxides, lignin and phosphorus polyol on the fire behavior of flexible polyurethane foams, Ind. Crops Prod, vol.125, pp.346-359, 2018.

M. Canetti and F. Bertini, Supermolecular structure and thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/lignin composites, Compos. Sci. Technol, vol.67, pp.3151-3157, 2007.

M. Canetti, F. Bertini, A. De-chirico, and G. Audisio, Thermal degradation behaviour of isotactic polypropylene blended with lignin, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.91, pp.494-498, 2006.

F. Bertini, M. Canetti, A. Cacciamani, G. Elegir, M. Orlandi et al., Effect of ligno-derivatives on thermal properties and degradation behavior of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-based biocomposites, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.97, pp.1979-1987, 2012.

C. Réti, M. Casetta, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, and R. Delobel, Flammability properties of intumescent PLA including starch and lignin, Polym. Adv. Technol, vol.19, pp.628-635, 2008.

R. E. Lyon and R. N. Walters, Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.71, pp.27-46, 2004.

S. Hörold, Phosphorus flame retardants in thermoset resins, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.64, pp.427-431, 2009.

S. Duquesne, M. Le-bras, S. Bourbigot, B. Eling, C. Lindsay et al., Mechanism of Fire Retardancy of Polyurethanes Using, J. Appl. Polym. Sci, vol.82, pp.3262-3274, 2001.

N. Grassie and M. Zulfigar, Applied Science. Developments in Polymer Stabilisation, Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol.1, p.197, 1978.

Y. Ding, M. B. Mckinnon, S. I. Stoliarov, G. Fontaine, and S. Bourbigot, Determination of kinetics and thermodynamics of thermal decomposition for polymers containing reactive flame retardants: Application to poly(lactic acid) blended with melamine and ammonium polyphosphate, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.129, pp.347-362, 2016.

Y. H. Zhang, X. Xiao, Q. Tai, and H. Huang, Modification of Lignin and Its Application as Char Agent in Intumescent Flame-Retardant Poly(lactic acid), Polym. Eng. Sci, vol.52, pp.2620-2626, 2012.

B. Schartel and T. R. Hull, Development of fire-retarded materials-Interpretation of cone calorimeter data, Fire Mater, vol.31, pp.327-354, 2007.

H. Vahabi, Q. Lin, C. Vagner, M. Cochez, M. Ferriol et al., Investigation of thermal stability and flammability of poly(methyl methacrylate) composites by combination of APP with ZrO2, sepiolite or MMT, Polym. Degrad. Stab, vol.124, pp.60-67, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01573469

J. Hu, D. Shen, S. Wu, H. Zhang, and R. Xiao, Effect of temperature on structure evolution in char from hydrothermal degradation of lignin, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.106, pp.118-124, 2014.

M. Brebu and C. Vasile, Thermal degradation of lignin-A review, Cellul. Chem. Technol, vol.44, pp.353-363, 2010.

Y. Zhang, Z. Xia, H. Huang, and H. Chen, Thermal degradation of polyurethane based on IPDI, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol.84, pp.89-94, 2009.