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Theses

Les conduites suicidaires chez les étudiants : analyse et modélisation du risque dans la cohorte i-Share.

Abstract : In France, suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people aged between 15 and 24 years. Although the risk of suicide during adolescence is well documented, only a paucity of studies has investigated mental health and suicidal behaviours in French university students. Yet, student life is accompanied by a number of important changes known to increase risks for psychiatric disorders. The main objective of this thesis was to model suicidal behaviours among French University to identify individuals at risk. Our objectives were two-fold: 1) to study the association between suicidal behaviours and self-reported factors in childhood and adolescence such as perceived parental support, peer victimization and/or parental maltreatment; 2) to develop a predictive model of suicidal behaviours in students using machine learning methods. We conducted analyses using data from the i-Share cohort, a prospective longitudinal study that has included student volunteers since 2013. We report four main findings: 1) about one in five students (21%) reported suicidal thoughts in the past 12 months and 6%, lifetime suicide attempts; 2) compared to students who reported high levels of parental support, those who perceived a total lack of support in childhood and adolescence had a four to nine fold higher probability of having occasional (adjusted odds ratio aOR: 4.55; 95% confidence interval CI: 2.97-6.99) or multiple suicidal thoughts (aOR: 8.58; 95% CI: 4.62-15.96); 3) students who reported being victimized by peers, without associated parental maltreatment, were more likely to present suicidal ideation without (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.26-2.09) or with suicide attempts (aOR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.51-4.85); 4) among more than 70 predictors measured at baseline, four showed high predictive power for suicidal behaviours: previous suicidal thoughts, trait anxiety, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. In secondary analyses using data from the CONFINS cohort, we showed that students were more likely than non-students to experience mental health problems, in particular during COVID-19 lockdowns. Overall, our results highlight the frailty of students and the need to implement mental health preventive interventions in this population. Specifically, the results suggest that parental support programs and school bullying prevention programs could reduce the long-term suicidal risk among young adults. Interventions to strengthen self-esteem among university students could provide contextual support to those at risk. Suicidal behaviours are common among students and further research is needed to develop and evaluate screening tools that can be used routinely, for example at university entrance, to identify the most vulnerable students.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03534291
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 19, 2022 - 12:43:44 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, January 26, 2022 - 2:33:07 PM
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Melissa Macalli. Les conduites suicidaires chez les étudiants : analyse et modélisation du risque dans la cohorte i-Share.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021BORD0285⟩. ⟨tel-03534291⟩

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